The Samburu National Reserve is located in the Samburu District, North of the Equator, at an altitude ranging from 800 to 1,230 meters above sea level and it covers an area of about 165-square kilometers, equivalent to 64 sq miles. The reserve is part of a much larger eco system which includes the bordering Buffalo Springs and Shaba National Reserves. Buffalo Springs covers an area of approximately 131sq km and Shaba covers an area of approximately 239sq km. Samburu is characterized by a desert and semi-desert region with a dry and warm climate; the Southern border of the reserve is demarcated by the Ewaso Nyiro River, that is the only permanent source of water in this protected area, even during the dry season; from this river depends the survival of all the animals in the reserve.
The two major rainfall seasons typical to Kenya also loosely apply to Samburu, with the months from April to May and September to November seeing brief rainly spells nonetheless accompanied by hours of sunshine.
Some basic geographical facts are as below:
Altitude: 800–1,230 m approx ;
Rainfall: mean annual is 354mm with peaks in November and April;
Temperature range: 16–32 °C (61–90 °F)